The Screening and its Results

The result of this search was the identification of 199 botanical drugs designated tonic by the
Eclectic medical movement. The 199 drugs were then organized in the Tonic Data Base according
to plant family, resulting in a data base containing 75 plants families. All the tonics in the data
base were then screened for adaptogen activity using the new adaptogen criterion.
Each of the 199 traditionally used tonics fulfilled some part of the new adaptogen criterion.
However, 67 tonics strongly fulfilled the new criterion. Of those, 24 botanical tonics were lacking
in data and required additional research. The shortfall occured in one of two areas. In some
instances, these drugs lacked contemporary research concerning their chemical constituents and
the activity of those constituents. In other cases, the clinical evidence summarised from the
traditional uses of the drug was modest. In other words, these botanical tonics had not been used
to a great degree by the Eclectics. The drugs lacking sufficient information were eliminated. The result
was 44 botanical drugs that strongly fulfilled the new adaptogen criterion. As such, these 44
remedies can be classified as adaptogens. A graph of the results follows along with lists of the
tonics herein described.

 

The list of tonics screened, organized by plant family, is as follows:

Algaceae
Chondrus crispus
Fucus vesiculosis
Anacardiaceae
Anacardium
occidentale
Mangifera indica
Rhus aromatica
Rhus glabra
Rhus toxicondron
Apocynaceae
Alstonia constricta
Aquifoliaceae
Ilex verticillata
Araceae
Acorus calamus
Arum Triphyllum
Araliaceae
Aralia hispida
Aralia nudicaulis
Aralia racemose
Aralia spinosa
Panax quinqefolium
Aristolachiaceae
Aristolochia serpentaria
Asclepediaceae
Asclepias tuberosus
Berberidaceae
Caulophyllum
Thalictroides
Berberis vulgaris
Jeffersonia diphylla
Mahonia aquifolium
Podophyllum peltatum
Betulaceae
Alnus serrulata
Caprifoliacea
Diervilla canadensis
Hydrangea aborescens
Sambucus canadensis
Castanaceae
Aesculus glabra
Aesculus
hippocastanum
Castana vesca
Celastraceae
Celastrus scandens
Eunomous
atropurpureus
Cistaceae
Cistus canadensis
Compositae
Achillea millefolium
Anthemis cotula
Anthemis nobilis
Anthemis recutita
Apocynum canabis
Arctium lappa
Arnica montana
Artemisia absinthum
Artemisa santonica
Calendula officinalis
Cardus marianus
Echinacea angustifolia
Erechites heiracifolia
Erigeron canadense
Eupatorium aromatica
Eupatorium
perfoliatum
Eupatorium
purpureum
Eupatorium teucrifolia
Grindelia robusta
Inula helenium
Liatris spicata
Polymnia uvedalia
Scolymus cynara
Senecio aureus
Silphium perfoliatum
Solidago rigida
Taraxacum officinalis
Vernonia prealta
Cornacea
Cornus florida
Cupressaceae
Thuja occidentalis
Curcurbitaceae
Bryonia alba
Droseraceae
Drosera rotundifolia
Ebeneceae
Diospyros virginiana
Ericaceae
Arctostaphyllos Uvaursi
Epigea repens

Gaultheria
procumbens
Kalmia latifolia
Ledum palustre
Oxydendrum
arboreum
Rhododendrum
maximum
Euphorbiaceae
Croton Tigleum
Euphorbia hypericifolia
Stillingia silvatica
Fagaceae
Quercus alba
Fumariaceae
Corydalis formosa
Fumaria officinalis
Gentianaceae
Centauraea benedicta
Frasera carolinensis
Gentiana catesbei
Gentiana lutea
Gentiana ochroleuca
Gentiana quinquefolia
Sabbatia angularis
Swertia chirata
Geraniaceae
Geranium maculatum
Graminaceae
Avena sativa
Hamamelidaceae
Hamamelis virginiana
Hydrophyllaceae
Eriodictyon
californicum
Hypericaceae
Hypericum perfolatum
Iridacea
Iris versicolor
Juglandaceae
Juglans cinerea
Labiatae
Collinsonia canadensis
Lycopus virginicus
Nepeta cataria
Scutellaria laterifolia
Lauraceae
Sassafrass officinalis
Leguminosae
Acacia catechu
Baptisia tinctoria
Haematoxylon
campechianum
Medicago sativa
Melilotus officinalis
Pterocarpus erinaceus
Robinia pseudo?acacia
Trifolium pratense
Liliaceae
Aletris farinosa
Aloe socotrina
Colchicum autumnale
Chamaelirium luteum
Erythronium
americanum
Lilium tigrum
Polygonatum
multiflorum
Smilax species
Loganaceae
Ignatia amara
Loganiaceae
Strychnos nux?vomica
Magnoliaceae
Liriodendron tulipfera
Magnolia glauca
Menispermaceae
Cocculus palmatus
Menyanthaceae
Menyanthes
perfoliatum
Monimiaceae
Peumos boldo
Myricaceae
Comptonia peregrina
Myrica cerifera
Myrtaceae
Eucalyptus globulus
Oleaceae
Chionanthus virginica
Fraxinus americana
Orchidaceae
Corallhorhiza
odontorhiza
Cypripedium
pubescens
Vanilla planifolium
Onagraceae
Epilobium
augustifolium
Palmaceae
Sabal serrulata
Papaveraceae
Chelidonium majus
Sanguinaria
canadensis
Parmeliaceae
Cetraria islandica
Phytolaccaceae
Phytolacca americana
Pinaceae
Larix americana
Pinus canadensis
Pinus pendula
Piperaceae
Piper augustifolia
Piper cubeba
Piper methysticum
Piper nigrum
Plantaginaceae
Plantago major
Plumbaginaceae
Limonium caroliniana
(formerly Statice
caroliniana)
Polygonaceae
Rheum palmatum
Rumex crispus
Polemoniaceae
Polemonium reptans
Polyporaceae
Fomitopsis officinalis
Pyrolaceae
Chimaphylla umbellata
Pyrola rotundifolia
Ranunculaceae
Aconite
napellus Anemone
pulsatilla
Anemposis californica
Caltha palustris
Cimicfuga racemose
Coptis trifolia
Heleborus niger
Hepatica americanum
Hydrastis candadensis
Paeonia officinalis
Ranunculus bulbosus
Xanthorrhiza apiifolia
Rhamnaceae
Ceanothus americanus
Rhamnus purshiana
Rhamnus virginicus
Rosaceae
Agrimonia eupatoria
Amygdalus persica
Gillenia trifoliata
Prunus serotina
Rubus villosus
Rubiaceae
Cephaelis ipecacuanha
Cinchona rubra
Mitchella repens
Rutaceae
Agathosma betulina
(formerly Barosma
betulina)
Citrus medica
Ptelea aquatica
Xanthxylem
americanum
Salicaceae
Populus balsamifera
Popululs tremuloides
Salix alba
Sarraceniaceae
Sarracenia rubra
Saxifragaceae
Heuchera americana
Scrophulariaceae
Chelone glabra
Euphrasia officinalis
Veronicastrum virginica
(formerly Leptandra
virginica)
Scrophularia
marylandica
Verbascum thapsus
Simarubaceae
Ailanthus excelsa
glandulosa
Picriena excelsa
Simarouba amara
Solanaceae
Fabiana imbricata
Solanum caroliensis
Solanum dulcamara
Sterculiaceae
Cola acuminata
Turneraceae
Damiana aphrodisaca
Urticariaceae
Humulus lupulus
Urticaria dioica
Verbenaceae
Verbena hastata
Vitaceae
Amelopsis quinquefoli
Zygophyllaceae
Guaiacum officinale

Acorus calamus
Aesculus hippocastanum
Ailanthus exelsaglandulosa
Alnus serulata
Alsontonia constricta
Amelopsis quinquefolia
Agrimony eupatoria
Aralia nudicaulis
Arctium lappa
Arnica montana
Aristolochia serpentaria
Asclepias tuberosus
Avena sativa
Baptisia tinctorum
Calendula officinalis
Ceonanthus americanus
Chimaphylla umbellata
Chionanthus virginica
Chondrus crispus
Cimicifuga racemose
Cinchona rubra
Cistus canadensis
Corallhiza odentorrhiza
Collisonia canadensis
Cornus florida
Corydalis formosa
Diosporus virginiana
Echinacea angustifolia
Eriodyctum californicum
Eucalytus globulus
Eupatorium perfoliatum
Euonomous
atropurpureus
Fomitopsis officinalis
Gaulteria procumbens
Gaultheria
Gentiana lutea
Hydrastis canadensis
Geranium maculatum
Guaiacum officinalis
Ilex verticillata
Iris versicolor
Juglans cinera
Larix americana
Leptandra virginica
Liriodendron tulipfera
Mahonia aquifolium
Menyanthus perfolatum
Myrica cerifera
Ptelea aquaticum
Phytolacca decandra
Podophyllum peltatum
Prunus serotina
Populus Tremuloides
Quercus alba
Rhus toxicodendron
Salix alba
Sambucus canadensis
Sanguinaria canadensis
Sassafras alba
Serrenoa repens
Scrophularia marylandica
Solanum dulcamara
Stillingia sylvatica
Trifolium pratense
Thuja occidentalis
Urticaria dioica
Verbascum thapsus
Xanthoxylem americanum

Acorus calamus
Aesculus hippocastanum
Ailanthus exelsaglandulosa
Alstononia constricta
Agrimony eupatoria
Aristolochia serpentaria
Asclepias tuberosus
Ceonanthus americanus
Corallhiza odentorrhiza
Collisonia canadensis
Diosporus virginiana
Eriodyctum californicum
Fomitopsis officinalis
Geranium maculatum
Ilex verticillata
Juglans cinera
Larix americana
Leptandra virginica
Menyanthus perfolatum
Ptelea aquaticum
Serrenoa repens
Scrophularia marylandica
Stillingia sylvatica
Verbascum thapsus

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